The ‘Burg is the college radio station for Central Washington University based out
of Ellensburg, Washington. The history of The ‘Burg starts back in 1958 when
small broadcast facility, KCAT, started broadcasting on 880 AM. The ‘Burg, now KCWU,
has flourished into a state-of-the-art broadcast facility.
Ellensburg, Washington. The ‘Burg or KCWU-FM is an officially recognized
department at Central Washington University. We are about 2 hours east of
Seattle, and almost in the dead center of Washington.
The ‘Burg plays the freshest in new music today.
KCWU. The call letters for The ‘Burg used to be KCAT. Then in May of
1998, KCAT was switched to KCWU because “KCAT” already existed in Pine Bluff,
88.1 FM in the Ellensburg Area. Before the days of The ‘Burg, KCAT
transmitted over 880 AM, and later on FM cable at 91.5 FM. Then on March 3rd,
1998, KCAT obtained a construction permit to build a 500-Watt, non-commercial
educational FM broadcast station at 88.1 MHz. Shortly there after KCAT changed
its’ call letters to KCWU
You can either request a song by calling (509)963-2311 or by
e-mailing the burg your request. We expect
regular line on-air talent to resume by October, 2006.
Phone: (509)-963-2283 (Main Office)
Extemporaneous speaking – without copy. Outlines or some kind of brief written
info is usually used as a guide.
Telling the listener what he/she just heard. It’s okay once in a while, but
it does get repetitive, especially if you front-sell and back announce the same
See Also: Front Selling
A device designed to control and route audio. Also known as a mixer,
console, or a control surface, these units are found in virtually every on-air
and production studio. Volume controls called faders (slide pots) are used to
adjust the level of each audio input channel and mix all audio channels into a
A memorable slogan used in conjunction with the station Liner, designed to
identify and highlight the station’s primary music format.
i.e.. “Your Music Central”
Script that is either read live over the air or produced in the Production
Studio. Copy is usually written in all capital letters, and double-spaced for
The magazine listing the weekly top 200 college radio albums, as tallied from
The top 30 selections played every week by college radio stations nationwide.
The first page of every daily Program Log. If something goes wrong while
you are logged on-air, enter it on this document – missed PSA’s, equipment
breakdown, accidental obscenity being aired, power failures, and so on. This
is a legal document. Entries made on this document will be reviewed on a daily
basis, addressed by management, and filed for FCC compliance purposes.
A production piece ranging in length from under 10 seconds to 30 or 40
seconds. Drop-ins usually contain sound effects or humorous bits taken from
the Internet, television, movies, or other sources. They are used as a tool to
accentuate programming, either in between songs or during specific program
features. They must be used sparingly and with discernment, so as to be
relevant to the surrounding audio content.
Announcing music or other events in advance (usually, what you’ll be playing
See Also: Back Selling
Production designed to give the station an on-air image – Liners, Promos,
Legal I.D.s, Stagers, etc.
Any broadcast material, either spoken or in music, which “depicts or
describes sexual or excretory organs or activities,” and/or which is considered
to be patently offensive to the average person as measured by contemporary
community standards for the broadcast medium.
Indecency, while sometimes protected by the First Amendment, is not legally
permissible for broadcast outside the hours of 10pm to 6am, (known in the
industry as the “Safe Harbor” period–times when children are not likely to be
listening). At KCWU-FM, indecency is not permissible at any time. See
“Obscenity and Indecency Policy” in Section 4 of this Handbook.
Official station CALL LETTERS, and city of license
(LOCATION) – NOTHING IN BETWEEN! Required by the FCC to be
broadcast at the top of the hour (or as close to the top of the hour as
possible). Failure to broadcast a Legal I.D. is cause for a $1,000 FCC fine,
i.e.. K-C-W-U Ellensburg
Amount of audio volume; gain; degree of amplification.
A short and common station identification announcement, often used in between
songs to create smooth transitions. A liner is also typically the first thing
a DJ says coming out of music, and the last thing they say before returning to
i.e.. Eighty-Eight-One The ‘Burg
A dated announcement of an informational or public service nature, on behalf
of a campus, local, regional, or national organization. Live Reads are
scheduled throughout the day and are read live on the air-hence the term
As defined by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Miller v. California [413
U.S. 15 (1973)], obscenity is broadcast material that is not protected by First
Amendment Freedom of Speech rights, and which the FCC believes the “average
person,” applying contemporary community standards, would find fits all three
of the following descriptions:
Any pre-recorded piece of audio produced for on-air playback. The Production
Director oversees all such production (public service announcements, promos,
underwriting announcements, etc.). Production may contain any number of
elements (voice, special effects such as echo and flanging, music beds, sound
effects, and audio from video clips, to name a few).
Language, as defined by the FCC, that denotes “personally reviling epithets
naturally tending to provoke violent resentment or denoting language so grossly
offensive to members of the public who actually hear it as to amount to a
The daily on-air schedule, produced by the Assistant Program Director, that
indicates when station announcements (“breaks” or “stop sets”) are to be
broadcast. Every Program Log should begin with a Discrepancy Sheet on the
front. Logs will be produced either electronically or in hard-copy format.
A pre-recorded advertisement for a station, campus, or community event of
primary interest to the station’s target audience. Promos are distinguished
from PSA’s in that they typically advertise entertainment-oriented events,
while PSA’s typically promote significant social causes and public services.
PSA’s are announcements (usually pre-produced) offered for free to CWU
clubs, organizations, and departments, local/regional non-profit organizations,
individuals, and syndicated companies such as the Ad Council. PSA’s are
designed to raise public awareness and promote the services, events, and
campaigns addressing social causes and concerns relevant to the local
An instrumental intro at the beginning of a song, before vocals come in.
Most on-air announcers try to keep the music flowing by talking on ramps.
Talking up to the vocals on a ramp is called “talking up to the post”.
A broadcast originating from a location outside the radio station, wherein
audio is sent back to the station via telephone lines, radio link, or internet.
The station phone line on which we take listener requests. Listeners may
also e-mail their requests to on-air staff at:
Rotation is our station’s new music library, administered by The Music
Director. The majority of the rotation comprising our weekly top 30 charts is
new rock, seasoned with other influences such as Indie, Punk, and Electronica.
On-air staff promote the new music in rotation to educate listeners about the
bands and artists producing the music. Rotation is played during non-specialty
show hours. CDs may be in rotation for 2-3 months. Stations such as ours help
make or break new artists and determine whether they have the potential to
cross over into the mainstream market. Some examples of artists we’ve played
before they’ve “crossed over” include Alanis Morrisette, The Donnas, Good
Charlotte, Pete Yorn, Ryan Adams, Junior Senior, and The White Stripes.
A transition from one song or program element to another.
A pre-recorded production piece designed to promote station specialty
Every time you first open the mike as a beginner, get the spoken basics done
The common broadcast industry term for “commercial.” Spots at commercial
stations generate advertising revenue to keep them operational and profitable.
Spots at non-commercial stations such as KCWU-FM are typically informational
and/or entertaining in nature (Public Service Announcements, Promos, etc.).
Underwriting and other Sponsor acknowledgements are typically broadcast in
exchange for financial contributions, but they may never legally cross the
threshold of becoming a commercial advertisement.
A longer, more complex station identification announcement, often including
music, sound effects, or other textual elements in addition to the basic Liner.
Stagers are designed to catch the listener’s interest after a stop set and
prepare their ears for the transition back into regular programming.
This is when you stop the music, TALK, then take a break to
play spots as scheduled on the Program Log.
A bad-sounding segue. This occurs when two songs or program elements don’t
transition well from one to the other (such as going directly from Tori Amos
Axia Audio is a Telos company that has pioneered the development of high quality,
uncompressed, low delay audio of ethernet. This revolutionary technology has
been named LiveWire. Livewire allows for a modular, dynamic, and scalable
implementation of high quality audio. This technology satisfies the needs of
radio, and adds other functionality that wouldn’t be achievable otherwise.
More information can be found at http://www.axiaaudio.com.
“Livewire is a new protocol developed by Telos, that allows transport of
real-time, “live” audio, plus program associated data (PAD) and machine remote
control over a switched Ethernet network. The same network can also carry file
transfers, messaging and other routine traffic.”
In essence, LiveWire is a integration of the computer world and the audio
LiveWire offers a multitude of benefits, The most prominent being the following:
standardization of cable; modularity; scalability; high-quality audio; simplicity;
computer and audio integration; and ease of maintenance.
We here at The ‘Burg have not found any problems with LiveWire yet. The biggest
hurdle may be the learning curve required for both the network engineers and the
The main technologies that need to be implemented to make LiveWire a successful
solution are Category 6 cable, a network switch, TCP/IP, 1000Base-TX, and
Category 6 (CAT 6) cable is cable that has 4 twisted pair wires, and is one of the best cables
currently in use for data communication. The twists in the cable reduce problems such as
cross talk and attenuation, which degrade the signal over long distances. In addition
CAT 6 cable is the best rated cable currently for use with 1000BT networks.
A network switch is a device the can connect many network devices (i.e.
computer, printer, server) together in a small Local Area Network (LAN). These
devices can be use in conjunction with other networking devices to create a Wide
Are Network (WAN). What makes a switch unique is more complicated and outside,
the realm of this FAQ. More information can be found at
TCP/IP Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is also
known as the internet protocol suite. It is the protocol suite that is required
for any device that is to be connected to the internet. In addition it is the
most common protocol suite used in computer networking. More information on
TCP/IP can be found at
100BTX, pronounced 100BASE-TX, stands for 100 Mbit/s over Category 5 (CAT 5)
cable or better, this includes Category 6 (CAT 6). This standard of ethernet
is defined in IEEE 802.3 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers. More information can be found at
1000BTX, pronounce 1000BASE-TX, stand for 1000 Mbit/s over Category 5 (CAT 5)
cable or better, this includes Category 6 (CAT 6). 1000BTX is very similar to
100BTX the main difference being the speed. More information can be found at
The major difference between normal streaming audio over the internet and
LiveWire is that LiveWire is low-delay. Most audio one a LiveWire network will
time sensitive and will require extremely low-delay over a very fast network.
This is in contrast to traditional streaming audio over the Internet where
delays are expected and the material is not time sensitive. In addition,
LiveWire audio is not compressed, where streaming audio is.
With better sound comes better quality. We hope you will notice an increase in
the sound quality of the music we are playing.
Steaming audio is compressed audio that is sent over the Internet
to multiple clients and listened to by those clients as the audio comes in. Most
radio stations will stream their audio in real-time over the Internet so people
can listen to their station even if they are too far way to pick up the station
with a traditional antenna.
Yes, The ‘Burg does stream its audio. You can listen now, by selecting
either “Low Quality” or “High Quality” from the left hand bar. “Low Quality” is
recommended for those people with slower connection. People who have broadband
can choose “High Quality” to obtain a better sound from the streaming audio.
This can be caused by a number of different factors. Your connection speed
may not be fast enough to handle the “High Quality” streaming audio and you may
want to try the “Low Quality” streaming audio.
This can also be caused by congestion on the Internet. Although, we here at The
‘Burg can not control all the factors behind streaming audio, we have developed
a guide to help you maximize your streaming audio experience. If you are having
problems with your streaming audio please check out the next section entitled
“4.4 Can I prevent my music from dropping out?”
As previously stated, there are a number of problems that can cause a loss or
delay in streaming audio. The following section is provided to help you
configure your preferred player to better handle streaming audio so you won’t
lose in any audio due to Internet congestion.
Many of these solutions require you to change buffer sizes. Whenever you
increase your buffer size it will increase the time between when you hit the
“Play” button and when you start to hear music.
As with changing any settings on a computer, we recommend you document all your
previous settings prior to changing any settings. This way if you encounter a
problem you can set the system back to its previous state.
In Windows Media Player 9. Select “Tools”, then “Options”. This will bring up the
options menu. Next, select the “Performance” tab and make sure in the
“Connection Speed” section that “Detect connection speed (recommended)” is
selected. Then, under the “Network Buffering” Section, select “Buffer” and set
it to buffer “30 seconds of content.” Finally click “Apply” then click “OK.”
Now try streaming your audio again. If you still are having troubles, return to
the “Performance” tab and set it to buffer “60 seconds of content.”
In Winamp, select the icon in the top, left corner. Then select “Options” then
“Preferences” (or just hit Control P). Next select “General Preferences”, in
the “Internet Connection Settings” section “Select your internet connection
type” from the drop down menu (always on or dial-up).
Still in the “Winamp Preferences” window, in the left pane under “Plug-ins” select
“Input”. Then select “Nullsoft MPEG Audio Decoder [in_mp3.dll]” and click
“Configure”. In the “MPEG audio decoder settings” window select the “Streaming”
tab. Now you can set the “Streaming Data Buffer” as high as you need. Finally,
click “OK”, then click “Close” in the “Winamp Preferences” windows. We
recommend you restart your streaming audio to make sure your preferences take
We recommend you test out your new settings. If you are still having problems
with the stream dropping out, try increasing the data buffer some more.
In RealPlayer, select “Tools” then “Preferences”. Under the “General” category
select “Playback Settings”. Find the buffer setting near the bottom of the
window. We recommend setting it at 30 seconds to start. Finally, click “OK” and restart
your stream to test your new settings.
If you are still experiencing dropouts in your music, increase the buffer
setting to 45 seconds or even 60 seconds if needed.
In XMMS, hit Control P and bring up the “Input Plug-Ins”. Next click the “MPEG
Layer 1/2/3 Player” and hit “Configure”. Then, select the “Streaming” tab. In
the streaming tab you can select a buffer from 4 to 4,096 kbps. Click “OK” and
then click “Close.” Finally test your settings and make sure they are
appropriate for your situation.
If you are using XMMS we assume you are an advanced user and may not need as
much guidance as some novice users.
In iTunes, select the “iTunes” menu and select “Preferences” (select the “Edit”
menu and select “Preferences” if you are a Windows user). Selected the
“Advanced” tab and with in that tab select the “General” tab. Now you can
select between “Small”, “Medium”, and “Large” for the “Streaming Buffer Size”.
Select the size that is most appropriate for you, and then hit “OK.” Finally
restart your stream to test your settings.
The final thing you can try is to set your preferred audio player to repeat. In
the event of a total drop from the server your music player will attempt to
reconnect and stream from the server again. Most of the time this reconnection
should happen almost unknowingly to you.
If you are still having dropouts, increase your “Streaming Buffer Size” as
Podcasting is the automatic delivery of prerecorded material, such as a weekly
radio show, for viewing or listening at a later time. In order to receive a
podcast you must first subscribe to one. The term podcasting comes from the
fact that Apple Computers iPod was the most widely used portable music player at
the time when podcasting began. The term podcasting is actually a combination
of the two words iPod and broadcasting. You can find out more about podcasting
The main benefits of podcasting is that it is subscription based, and all media
is pushed to the user for viewing/listening at a later date. In addition, most
podcasts can be viewed/listened to on a mobile player.
No, currently we do not offer any podcasts.
There has been some talk about starting to podcast. Currently, we do not have
the time or the resources to invest into podcasting. However, in the future it
may become a viable option for us.
Currently, we do not have the resources or time to invest in researching and
setting up podcasts. In addition, there are some legality issues that we would
have to address before we began podcasting. We would like to get into
podcasting, but are unable to at this time.